This map was produced for a talk with the British Library – as we tried to negotiate the problems with a ‘flat dataset’ (i.e. a google sheets list) being turned into something that visually represented the story of a theatrical tour.
Category Archives: Types of practitioners
(b. 1914, fl. 1920-1936, d. 1951?)
Dancer and choreographer, Johnny Nit performed on Broadway and in Harlem in How Come (1923), a show which also featured Alberta Hunter, and in Dixie to Broadway (1924-5). He was frequently billed as ‘the world’s greatest tap dancer’, and his reviews suggest no one was disappointed at the moniker. On Broadway, Billboard noted that Nit’s ‘dancing routine stopped the show’ (Gordon Whyte, ‘The New Plays on Broadway: How Come?’ The Billboard (Archive: 1894-1960) Apr 28 1923: 36. ProQuest). Nit played in vaudeville alongside Will Vodery’s band in 1925.Continue reading
Madeline Rossiter Millar (known as Madeline Rossiter)
(b. Sept 12, 1886, Ealing – d.1964, Scarborough)
Join us as we return from our summer break to continue with the biographies – this time – the extraordinary Black British composer and performer, Madeline Rossiter.
A contralto singer, performer, male impersonator, tap dancer, dance teacher, choreographer, multi-instrumentalist, theatre director and comedian, as well as a composer and lyricist.
Rossiter toured extensively across the UK, Australasia and South Asia, known professionally as Madeline Rossiter. also performed in UK productions of musicals like the touring production of Rose Marie as Wanda the Mountain Vamp, leading the dance work of the company.
Despite this extensive presence, Rossiter isn’t included in An Inconvenient Black History of British Musical Theatre and we were told about her by a reader – we’ve noted several times that we are aware of the vaster history we are gesturing towards. What’s particularly exciting about Rossiter is that some of her music has survived – and there is potentially more in private circulation. In celebration of 135th anniversary of her birth, we’ve researched into her remarkable career and brought together some new information from digitised news sources from the UK and the US.
Very unusually for retracing Black practitioners in the early 1900s-1910s, there is one clear and full biography of Madeline Rossiter’s work written while she was still alive. The November 1954 edition of B.M.G. (Banjo Manadolin Guitar) “The Oldest Established and Most Widely-read Fretted Instrument Magazine in the World” – provides a detailed overview of her career, updating their readers that she was still directing amateur musical theatre productions in Cornwall. Though some details are very unclear, using digitised databases allows us to find a little more about Rossiter, who was by any definition, an extraordinary polymath.Continue reading
Cornelia Estelle Johnson (b. 29 April 1875, New York – d. 1970, London )
Connie Smith was born in the US in 1875, and lived the majority of her life in the UK after her arrival in 1894. With her partner Augustus ‘Gus’ Smith (who became her husband), she performed touring British theatre as a singer and performer as Smith and Johnson. In later life she worked extensively as a television and film actor.
Stephen Bourne has retraced much of Connie Smith’s extraordinarily expansive career (and an entry for her exists in the Oxford National Biography database). Like many of the performers covered here, the advent of digitised resources allows us to know much more about the breath-taking array of work Smith was involved in from variety theatre, radio, plays, film and television, across sixty years.
When Smith first arrived in Liverpool in July 1894, on the SS Southwark (on the Philadelphia to Liverpool route) her occupation was listed as a ‘minstrel’ performer on the shipping paperwork (which saw her travel with James Johnson – also listed as a minstrel, and could possibly have been her brother, but it is unclear exactly who he was to her).
Tracing her work before 1900 is quite challenging, but as Smith and Johnson they performed extremely widely across the UK. She appears in a bill at the Glasgow Britannia variety theatre in June 1895, which still exists today. They went on to tour towns and cities like Portsmouth, Bristol, Leicester, Woolwich, Liverpool, Nottingham, Brighton, and Manchester. They were primarily advertised as vocalists but occasionally as comedians and even vocal comedians.
One 1897 account of their performance at the London music hall, Foresters notes that they were singing ‘Goodnight Goodbye’, ‘Dora Dean’ and ‘Sailor Boy’. In 1900 they performed alongside Cassie Walmer in the Theatre Royal Stratford production of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. As Bourne notes in his biography of Smith, they were much praised for their singing and cake walk work by 1901.
They clearly had a longstanding attachment to Liverpool, Connie was baptised as a Catholic in May 1902, presumably in order to be married there to Augustus [Gus] Smith shortly thereafter. Together they performed consistently in variety theatre, and increasingly in cinevariety (there are hundreds of accounts and references to their performances in The Era alone), until Gus Smith’s death in 1927.
In 1927 Smith performed with the Southern Syncopated Singers as part of an act that ran alongside the premiere of the Uncle Tom’s Cabin movie at the London Pavilion. This company included John Payne and Mabel Mercer, and Noble Sissle clearly also had parallel performances at the Pavilion (perhaps in the nightclub) at the same period.
She was part of the London Show Boat company that featured Paul Robeson and Alberta Hunter (and we write about her in reference to that production in An Inconvenient Black History of British MT).
In the early 1930s she was singing at Romano’s Nightclub (as Pep Graham also did) as a quartet with Alexander Lofton, Edward Wallace, and Phil Hanlon, with songs like ‘River Stay Away From My Door’. She performed alongside Elisabeth Welch on the radio in the 1930s. She sometimes wrote updates to African American newspapers to inform readers at home about the successes of Black performers in the UK.
Curiously there are references to Connie Smith in the New York 1935 Cotton Club Parade, which starred Lena Horne and Nina Mae McKinney. There are no references to her that year that appear in the British Newspaper Archive, so it is possible that she went to New York to appear in the show – but there is no way to confirm at the moment. It was not unusual for settled performers to travel back for individual performances, so it is certainly possible. By 1939 she was living alone at 100 Brook Drive, Lambeth, and her occupation was listed as ‘variety and film artiste’.
In 1955, Edward Scobie wrote about her work in the UK for The Chicago Defender under the headline, ‘Septuagenarians Still Active in Foreign Theatres’. In that article he suggested that she had never returned in all the time she had been in the UK. It is difficult to establish whether he was write, given that Connie Smith is a common enough name to make finding her on immigration records exceptionally difficult.
In the UK, Smith was a founding member of the English Stage Company in 1956, where she performed in multiple plays including The Crucible. From this period on she was frequently on television, and her performances were reviewed in US Variety. There is a full film listing for her at the BFI.
Smith died aged 95, and like William Garland, another great figure in the history of Black performers in the UK, she was buried in the Streatham Cemetery area for variety theatre performers.
Bourne, Stephen. “Smith [née Johnson], Cornelia Estelle [Connie] (1875–1970), music-hall entertainer and actress.” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 23 Sep. 2010; Accessed 22 Nov. 2020. https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-94605.
Pines, Jim Black and White in Colour: Black People in British Television since 1936 London, BFI Publishing
Selected chronology of shows and plays
|When||Title of Show||Type||Further details?|
|1900||Uncle Tom’s Cabin||Musical play||Theatre Royal Stratford, with Cassie Walmer.|
|1927||Good Times Coming||Revue||Announced in The Stage, as a detail when her husband died. The show toured widely across the UK, including small towns like Walsall. The show featured the ‘Franco Boston Syncopators’.|
|1927||The Lucky Bag||Revue||toured extensively, across smaller theatres like Cannock Hippodrome. Featured the same band as Good Times Coming playing ‘a fanfare of jazz’ so it is presumably related.|
|1929||The Fun Fayre||Revue||touring company|
|1930||The P—–y Revels||Revue||Touring variety show production (Essentially a full touring revue)|
|1942||The Little Foxes||Play|
|1944||Three’s a Family||Play||By Phoebe and Henry Ephron – toured across the UK|
|1947||The Coral Snake||Play||Presented at The Q theatre, West End.|
|1948||Jason||Play||presented at the New Lindsey Theatre Club, London.|
|1949||The Golden Hour||Play||presented at Leicester, by the Glasgow Unity Theatre company|
|1946||Stage Door||Play||Edna Ferber and George Kaufman play, West End followed by regional tour|
|1947||SS Glencairn||Play||Eugene O’Neill|
|1950||Deep are the Roots||Play||touring production (Read more about the Hull production here)|
|1956||The Green Pastures||Radio Adaptation||Marc Connelly’s play adapted for radio, Edric Connor and Earl Cameron starred.|
|1956||The Crucible||Play||English Stage Company production|
|1957||The Member of the Wedding||Play||English Stage Company, Royal Court then tour.|
|1958||Flesh to a Tiger||Play||Play about Jamaica, by the English Stage Company, also starred Cleo Laine. Play by Barry Reckford|
|1960||Mister Johnson||Play||Based on Joyce Carey’s novel, set in Nigeria in 1960. Adapted by Norman Rosten.|
Ancestry.co.uk; British Newspaper Archive; Proquest (Chicago Defender)
Born January 1902, London – died March 1987
Unlike many of the practitioners in the book, Dove is thankfully more widely known, and much more has been written about her. So this post will act more as a starting point for research into her extraordinary life and work as a Black British performer. Her performance in the 1948 musical Calypso is featured in An Inconvenient Black History of British Musical Theatre 1900-1950 along with a more general overview of her activities.
Dove performed extensively in the UK, right across the country, and there are likely to be theatre programmes that feature her in various local archives. She also performed in Ireland. In 1958, she performed in the Langston Hughes musical Simply Heavenly which opened at the Adelphi theatre in the West End.
The BBC’s Programme Index (previously Genome, which digitised and archived the Radio Times) has extensive coverage of Dove’s many television and radio images. She performed alongside Elizabeth Welch and the celebrated pianist Winifred Atwell. She was also part of the Serenade in Sepia series with Edric Connor.
Getty has a non-embeddable image of Dove performing in Germany.
Bourne, S. 2017, ‘The Untold Story Of Britain’s First Black Female Superstar’, in The Voice, 30th March, https://archive.voice-online.co.uk/article/untold-story-britain%E2%80%99s-first-black-female-superstar
Bourne, S. (2001) Black in the British Frame: The Black Experience in British Film and Television
Bourne, S. (2016) Evelyn Dove: Britain’s Black Cabaret Queen, Jacaranda Books
~Exhibition notes from the National Portrait Gallery’s exhibit: Devotional
Rye, Howard. 2010. “SOUTHERN SYNCOPATED ORCHESTRA: THE ROSTER.” Black Music Research Journal 30 (1) (Spring): 19-70.
Black music in the Harlem Renaissance : a collection of essays
Dove singing ‘Couldn’t hear nobody pray’
Zaidee Jackson (1898-1970)
Zaidee is fairly well known and left behind a substantial recording profile. But her work in the UK is often not so explored – so we’ve uncovered this in more detail here.
About Zaidee’s work in the UK
In 1928 she performed at the Piccadilly Hotel, apparently recommended by a Lord Lathom, the review notes she ‘has charm and versatility, and is especially good in spirituals’ (Daily Mirror 06/06/1928, 11). She was reported as having arrived via Cannes. She broadcast regularly on the radio from London’s radio station from September 1928, often programs of spirituals though she was also described as a ‘[Black] syncopated song artist’. In October 1928 she performed spirituals before a play, Deadlock, though this appears to have been ill received by audiences at the time.
In September 1929 she performed in an all-Black cast variety radio show with Leslie Hutchinson, Williams and Taylor and Jackson and Blake. The radio work seems to have paused as Jackson then went into variety theatre (the Argyle, Birkenhead, Blackpool Palace). In 1930 she then performed in variety across the UK, first in Manchester Hippodrome, and then singing as a vocalist in support of Sir Henry Wood’s concerts at the London Coliseum (January 1930). By March 1930 she was appearing with the tagline ‘the singer from the Southland’, and was singing ‘My Fate is in Your Hands’ in variety. She must have been living or based at John C Payne’s house, as she gave his address for communications. She began broadcasting again in July 1930, though must have departed for Paris at some point fairly soon after this.
Jackson returned to the UK in 1933, now billed as a blues singer in Ballyhoo at the Comedy Theatre (London’s West End). She began broadcasting shortly afterwards. By December 1934 she was performing in Monte Carlo, and appears not to have returned to the UK.
British Newspaper Archive, The Bystander
Jackson is mentioned in Michel Fabre’s 1991 book From Harlem to Paris Black American Writers in France, 1840-1980 and in Hilton R. Schleman’s Rhythm on Record (1978). Archive.org has some references to her in period jazz magazines and in biographies of other (usually) women performers.
Louis Drysdale (1883-1933)
(b. 1883, Kingston Jamaica – d. 1933, Forest Hill, Lewisham)
Drysdale was a singer and later vocal teacher, known as Professor Drysdale. Drysdale was part of the Jamaican Choir that visited the UK in July 1906. Later vocal teacher, specialising in working with Black theatre performers. He taught Paul Robeson, Marian Anderson, Florence Mills and extended hospitality to visiting Black musicians who needed somewhere to stay. He advertised his services as a ‘Specialist in Breath Control, Diction and Style. Pupils carefully trained for opera, oratoria and concert platform’ (Thanet Advertiser 01/04/1922) ‘Bel Canto’ singing teacher, 11 Westbourne Road, Forest Hill, SE25.
He sang ‘Fall In’ as part of Southall Brotherhood in a ‘patriotic musical concert’ in 1914. By the 1920s, he advertised widely to the public as a former pupil of Signor Lenghi Cellini and Giovanni Cleriei, as a vocal coach and elocution teacher. He taught Paul Robeson, Marian Anderson, Florence Mills and extended hospitality to visiting Black musicians who needed somewhere to stay.
There is surprisingly little on Drysdale’s life, however he features in Marian Anderson’s biography, Marian Anderson
A Singer’s Journey by Allan Keller.
This podcast by Mike Guilfoyle, a local South London historian, uncovers more about Drysdale’s life in Forest Hill
From February 1907-1967 Howard appears touring British variety theatres widely as a singer and within the year as a smart dancer, sand dancer (London, Bradford, Walsall, Bath, Carlisle etc). ‘Puts in one of the most strenuous ten minutes’ pieces of work we recall. Some of his steps compare favourably with lightning, so rapid are they.’ (MHTR 10/06/1909), Howard ‘astonishes with his untiring energy and his weird steps’ (MHTR 13/12/1909, 13). These kinds of references occur throughout the period – he clearly worked with both dance and comedy and was referred to explicitly in racially offensive terms. In 1922, he produced Going Some with a Syncopated Orchestra with Lewis Hardcastle.
There is also a Black drummer called Amos Howard who is potentially the same person, since he was part of the Going Some company.
In 1926 he went into he is listed as a partner in a business venture with Emmerson, Stockwell Productions. That note lists his address as 35 Camberwell New Road, in South East London. His company produced Still Going Some with Lewis Hardcastle, Flossie Pearce and Pepita Graham, and later Eddie Emmerson. He was in variations of this production until 1929, with a particular partnership with Hardcastle. He performed with Johnny Nit in a 1930 touring revue. He was also in the Lew Lake’s Blackberries of 1931 company, one review noted his ‘brilliant dancing’ (The Stage, 09/08/1931, 8). This was the point he potentially retired, as no clear mentions can be found subsequently.
Howard is mentioned in Black British Jazz: Routes, Ownership and Performance by Jason Toynbee, Catherine Tackley · 2016.
Rye, Howard. “Showgirls and stars: Black-cast revues and female performers in Britain 1903-1939.” Popular Music History 1, no. 2 (2006).
[Hurnes, James Edward] (b.?, Birmingham, UK d.1950, fl. 1916-1949)
Emmerson was a comedian, actor, dancer, singer, later compere long associate of Will Garland. In 1910 and 1913, ‘Eddie Emmerson’ appears as an ‘American juggling comedian’ however, in later interviews Emmerson stated his birthplace as Birmingham, UK. (The Birmingham Daily Gazette later notes he is a ‘clever local comedian’ 24/07/1923, 3)
Though Black performers were often assumed to be US American, no further mention is ever made of any juggling ability, it is likely this was someone else. This means Emerson’s first appearances under that name begin from the mid-1910s. Emerson was married to Myla Soysa (Westminster & Pimlico News, 09/01/1931, 8); her wedding registration lists her marriage to Emerson or Hurnes. The address given in news coverage of an unlikely event at the Soysa family home (a cat was singed in a fire and saved its owners from further harm by causing attention to the problem) reveals his address to be 4 Seagrave Terrace. In coverage of applications for Theatrical Employers’, the same address appears with the name James Edward Hurnes, thereby confirming his identity. Hurnes’s 1914 war record gives his profession as acrobat.
The acting/theatre roles that Emerson played, as well as the paucity of information on him, reveal the limitations placed on Black performers during the period. His first named role seems to have been Man Friday in the Derby Hippodrome’s 1915 pantomime Robinson Crusoe, a role which he played the year before his death in 1949 at Bournemouth’s New Royal Theatre. He played Jim Crow in Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Coventry Hippodrome in 1925). Emmerson was primarily associated with many Black cast revues. He perhaps had some producing role in the 1930 production Spades are Trumps as he ran advertisements for Black performers in The Stage 23/01/1930, 14. Together with Amos Howard, he established the Stockwell Productions company in 1926, which produced Still Going Some that year, with Hilda Dawson and Juno Grady.
He appears throughout the 1940s in variety billings – sometimes in a duo with white comedian Eddie Black. In 1946; listed as ‘the Bright Black Spot’ at Collins’s Islington (Stage, 28/08/1947, 3). Appears again at Collins in 1949 playing alongside Norman Thomas as ‘two dark clouds of joy’ (Stage, 12/05/1949, 5). He died while on tour with the revue Four and Twenty Blackbirds, from a heart attack (Stage, 06/04/1950, 4). He must have died without means to be privately buried, and was buried in a common [shared] grave in West London, West Brompton.
British Newspaper Archive
At the moment very little exists on Emmerson, he is covered in depth in An Inconvenient Black History of British Musical Theatre.
There is more to learn about Black performers using blackface in performance, Camille Forbes has worked extensively on the earlier key practitioner Bert Williams:
Forbes, C.F., 2004. Dancing with” Racial Feet”: Bert Williams and the Performance of Blackness. Theatre journal, pp.603-625.
List of productions
|Smoke Up||1916||Gordon Stretton|
|All Black||1917-1923||Will Garland production|
|Coloured Society||1917||George Sax and then Will Garland production|
|Down South||1922||Listed as ‘Eddie Myers’|
|Going Some||1923,||prod. George Sax, conducted by Mr Horton Boucher with Lewis Hardcastle|
|Brown Birds||1927-8||Will Garland production|
|Still Going Some||1926||Produced by his own company, Stockwell Productions.|
|Swanee River||1929||Will Garland production|
|Spades are Trumps||1930||With Jackson and Blake, Russell and Vivian, Ohio Three|
|Lew Lake’s Blackberries of 1931||1931||With Ike Hatch, Amos Howard, Frank Parham and Dorothy Venton, Shorty Mounsey, Andy Clark and Stanley Coleman|
|Rhapsody in Black||1931||‘Will Garland and Eddie Emerson’ had headline billing, Will Garland production|
|Plantation Memories||1941||Phoenix Theatre, London with Connie Smith|
|How Am I Doing Boys||1941|
|Four and Twenty Blackbirds||1950|
Norman Astwood (1902-1994)
Actor and singer, later film actor, Astwood was born in Florida before he moved to New York as a young man. He was in the UK for a two year period as part of T. Elder Hearn’s production of Blackbirds 1928-9 (the company included Johnny Nit, Anita Edwards, Olive Mendez and Bert Russell). Astwood sang solos and duets with Edwards, who was a white Welsh opera singer.
He briefly went into another Elder Hearn vehicle around Eddie Hunter, Good Gracious, but returned in 1930 after the tour. Before his arrival in the UK, Astwood had been a part of several US all Black cast revues including the Chicago production of Shuffle Along (1924), in Eddie Hunter’s Struttin’ Time (1924, co written with Alex Rogers) Darktown Scandals (1927). When he returned to the US in 1930, Astwood performed in various Harlem theatres, including the Alhambra, the Apollo and at the Cotton Club alongside Duke Ellington. He later appeared in three films Paradise in Harlem (1939), Sunday Sinners (1940), and Murder on Lenox Avenue (1941). He died in Florida in 1994.
British Newspaper Archive, Afro American, Billboard.
Astwood is mentioned in numerous accounts of Black film in the 1940s and in connection with Duke Ellington (e.g. Vail, Ken. Duke’s Diary. Scarecrow Press, 2002) but there is no substantial further material yet written.